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The lowlandsare known for their fertile farmland and thick woodlands, the Highlands for their towering mountains, sweeping moorland and dee… Farming in Scotland was affected by BSE and the European ban on the importation of British beef from 1996. It also provides the majority of local authority funding and can exert control over Council Tax - such as capping rates. There is also a dynamic and fast growing electronics design and development industry, based around links between the universities and indigenous companies. The motorway and trunk road network is principally centred on the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow and connecting them to other major concentrations of population, and is vitally important to the economy of Scotland. Several universities are playing an important role by producing research in Computing Science, including the University of Edinburgh's School of Informatics. [93] Terminology common to both systems are 'state schools' for publicly funded education and 'independent schools'. Scotland is considered to have an advanced communications infrastructure, similar to other Western nations, and has an extensive framework of developed radio, television, landline and mobile phone, as well as broadband internet networks. Note that the tourism expenditure chart below refers to figures in 2016 constant prices. Key routes include the M8 motorway, which is one of the busiest and most important major routes in Scotland, with other primary routes such as the A9 connecting the Highlands to the Central Belt, and the A90/M90 connecting Edinburgh and Aberdeen in the east. The economy has thus become more diversified and therefore stabler. (See British banknotes for further discussion). Check the 5-level Covid-19 restrictions for each area to plan and book ahead when considering your trip. In Scotland, GDP per capita varies from €16,200 in North & East Ayrshire to €50,400 in Edinburgh city. [17] Scotland is a constituent country of the UK, which is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G7, the G8, the G20, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the United Nations. Similarly asset servicing on behalf of fund managers has become an increasingly important component of the financial services industry in Scotland, with Scottish-based companies providing expertise in securities servicing, investment accounting, performance measurement, trustee and depositary services and treasury services. 'Heritable title' is equivalent to a freehold in England and Wales, however there is no Scots' law equivalent of a leasehold. Since the Acts of Union 1707, Scotland's economy has been closely aligned with the economy of the rest of the United Kingdom (UK) and England has historically been its main trading partner. The M74 and A1, in the west and east of the country, respectively, provide the main road corridors from Scotland to England. According to the REF 2014[65] assessment for computer science and informatics the School of Informatics has produced more world-leading and internationally excellent research (4* and 3*) than any other university in the UK. Scottish-based companies have strengths in information systems, defence, electronics, instrumentation and semiconductors. [92] The water industry is regulated by the Water Industry Commission for Scotland. The densest network of roads and railways is concentrated in the Central Lowlands of the country where around 70% of the population live. The Cabinet Secretary for Justice is responsible for policy matters affecting these systems such as legal aid, prison governance, drugs rehabilitation, reoffending, victims and witnesses, sentencing guidelines, and anti-social behaviour, but has a legal duty to uphold the independence of the courts and the legal profession. Note that the 2016 domestic expenditure data is not available. After the Industrial Revolution in Scotland, the Scottish economy concentrated on heavy industry, dominated by the shipbuilding, coal mining and steel industries. The Tayside and Angus area is a centre of production of soft fruits such as strawberries, raspberries and loganberries, owing to the mild climate. [citation needed], Although North Sea oil production has been declining since 1999, an estimated 920 million tonnes of recoverable crude oil remained in 2009. [77] Grangemouth is at the centre of Scotland's petrochemicals industry. The new analysis is intended to show how tourism … In 2014, over 15.5 million overnight tourism trips were taken in Scotland, for which visitor expenditure totalled £4.8 billion. It is estimated that tourism accounts for 5% of Scotland's GDP. Scottish waters consisting of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil resources in the European Union – Tourism Employs 207,000 People, Around One In 12 Jobs In The Economy. The Scottish Government set a target of 40% of Scotland's electricity generation be derived from renewable sources by 2020. In 1782, George Houston built what was then one of the largest cotton mills in the country in Johnstone. Sir Walter Scott’s blockbuster poem The Lady of the Lake helped, back in 1810 – and visitors have been coming here ever since. With a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of up to £152 billion in 2015, total public sector non-North Sea current revenue in Scotland was estimated to be £53.7 billion in 2015‑16 approx. Scotland could assist the development of the visitor economy. The figures below, noting the economic position of Scottish regions in terms of GDP and GDP per capita, come from Eurostat (2013) and are denoted in Euros. [97] The NHS in Scotland began in 1948 under a separate Act from England and Wales and was the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Scotland rather than the Health Secretary before devolution. In 2004, 22.6 million passengers used Scotland's airports, with there being 514,000 aircraft movements[70] with Scottish airports being amongst the fastest growing in the United Kingdom in terms of passenger numbers. This has, however, been combined with a rise in the service sector of the economy, which has grown to be the largest sector in Scotland. There are major deep-water port facilities at Aberdeen, Grangemouth, Greenock, Peterhead, Scapa Flow and Sullom Voe. This statistic shows growth in the total contribution of the travel and tourism industry to GDP in the United Kingdom (UK) from 2012 to 2018, with a forecast for 2028. Furthermore, the textiles industry is the seventh-largest exporter in Scotland accounting for over 3% of all Scottish manufactured products. In constant (2016) prices this is an increase of around 8%. Despite their new status as citizens of the United Kingdom, it took many decades for Scottish traders to gain a noticeable foothold in the colonial markets which had long been dominated by English merchants and concerns. Scotland is a well-developed tourist destination with attractions ranging from unspoilt countryside, mountains and abundant history. However some of these Scottish exports to the rest of the UK will feed into supply chains elsewhere in the rest of the UK and in turn, underpin the export of subsequent goods and services internationally.". [105] Medical and social care spending is forecast to increase as the population is aging faster than in England. Exports have increased by 87% in the past decade[when?] Scotland's public education system mostly follows comprehensive education principles, with two major types of public school; non-denominational schools, and denominational schools. Overnight domestic tourism visits and expenditure in Scotland by British residents are derived from the Great Britain Tourism Survey (GBTS). Direct UK heritage tourism expenditure - £8.49bn (= £5 Bn GDP) (GDP multiplier 2.75 then applied to give £13.9 Bn total impact) NB: There is no Scotland figure presented in the report. There were around 76.… Of land ( about 15 % of the rail system to cut journey times also has networks of schools. 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