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Producing more skis requires shifting resources out of snowboard production and thus producing fewer snowboards. Instead of the bowed-out production possibilities curve ABCD, we get a bowed-in curve, AB′C′D. A production possibilities curve is drawn based on which of the following set of assumptions? ���}�Ϻ�� b� C^1���-�B�|��U��؊��=6� v��ŽI"K���P�@a��-�U�; Suppose Alpine Sports expands to 10 plants, each with a linear production possibilities curve. We see in Figure 2.5 “The Combined Production Possibilities Curve for Alpine Sports” that, beginning at point A and producing only skis, Alpine Sports experiences higher and higher opportunity costs as it produces more snowboards. Figure 2.4 Production Possibilities at Three Plants. 4 0 obj But the production possibilities model points to another loss: goods and services the economy could have produced that are not being produced. The opportunity cost of each of the first 100 snowboards equals half a pair of skis; each of the next 100 snowboards has an opportunity cost of 1 pair of skis, and each of the last 100 snowboards has an opportunity cost of 2 pairs of skis. ... answer choices . If the economy moves from point A to point B, it will produce (more, fewer) medical services and (more, less) clean environment. Points on the production possibilities curve thus satisfy two conditions: the economy is making full use of its factors of production, and it is making efficient use of its factors of production. The U.S. economy looked very healthy in the beginning of 1929. The firm then starts producing snowboards. The economy had moved well within its production possibilities curve. The result is the bowed-in curve AB′C′D. These values are plotted in a production possibilities curve for Plant 1. The opportunity cost of the first 200 pairs of skis is just 100 snowboards at Plant 1, a movement from point D to point C, or 0.5 snowboards per pair of skis. 1 Answer. The downward slope of the production possibilities curve is an implication of scarcity. Questions you should be able to answer after the lesson. Production Possibilities Curve Illustrates Production Possibilities Curve Production Possibility Curve Tuition And Fees International Trade TERMS IN THIS SET (30) Sarah can wash, fold, and iron a basket of laundry in two hours and prepare a meal in one hour. Suppose that, as before, Alpine Sports has been producing only skis. In that case, it produces no snowboards. We will see in the chapter on demand and supply how choices about what to produce are made in the marketplace. %PDF-1.3 Suppose further that all three plants are devoted exclusively to ski production; the firm operates at A. These resources were not put back to work fully until 1942, after the U.S. entry into World War II demanded mobilization of the economy’s factors of production. Now suppose the firm decides to produce 100 snowboards. (3 marks) Page 2 … Suppose the firm decides to produce 100 radios. They continued to fall for several years. The bowed-out shape of the production possibilities curve results from allocating resources based on comparative advantage. Alpine Sports can thus produce 350 pairs of skis per month if it devotes its resources exclusively to ski production. The production possibilities curves for the two plants are shown, along with the combined curve for both plants. If Alpine Sports selects point C in Figure 2.9 “Efficient Versus Inefficient Production”, for example, it will assign Plant 1 exclusively to ski production and Plants 2 and 3 exclusively to snowboard production. We would say that Plant 1 has a comparative advantage in ski production. Suppose an economy fails to put all its factors of production to work. Production Possibilities Curve – a graph that shows alternative ways to use an economy’s resources – does not show consumer satisfaction. A production possibilities curve is a graphical representation of the alternative combinations of goods and services an economy can produce. 1. The sensible thing for it to do is to choose the plant in which snowboards have the lowest opportunity cost—Plant 3. 1 Handout 1 : Production Possibilities (Answer Key) A certain economy only produces two goods, calculators (C) The production of both goods rises. As we include more and more production units, the curve will become smoother and smoother. Such an allocation implies that the law of increasing opportunity cost will hold. The result is a far greater quantity of goods and services than would be available without this specialization. Imagine that you are suddenly completely cut off from the rest of the economy. Plants 2 and 3, if devoted exclusively to ski production, can produce 100 and 50 pairs of skis per month, respectively. In radios? Nations specialize as well. Points within the curve show when a country’s resources are not being fully utilised The slope equals −2 pairs of skis/snowboard (that is, it must give up two pairs of skis to free up the resources necessary to produce one additional snowboard). Now suppose that a large fraction of the economy’s workers lose their jobs, so the economy no longer makes full use of one factor of production: labor. Workers, for example, specialize in particular fields in which they have a comparative advantage. Here, the opportunity cost is lowest at Plant 3 and greatest at Plant 1. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Figure 2.5 The Combined Production Possibilities Curve for Alpine Sports. First, the economy might fail to use fully the resources available to it. Production totals 350 pairs of skis per month and zero snowboards. Now suppose Alpine Sports is fully employing its factors of production. The PPC curve is a way to represent the different production opportunities for a person, country, or trading partners. Production of all other goods and services falls by OA – OB units per period. We normally draw a PPF on a diagram as concave to the origin. The production possibilities curve is an illustration of what? Thus, the production possibilities curve not only shows what can be produced; it provides insight into how goods and services should be produced. Producing 1 additional snowboard at point B′ requires giving up 2 pairs of skis. An economy cannot operate on its production possibilities curve unless it has full employment. Economics | 1.4 Creating and Interpreting a Production Possibilities Curve Your task: using the data below, construct the production possibilities curve for the hypothetical country of Michigania. The second plant, while smaller than the first, was designed to produce snowboards as well as skis. So what is the production possibilities curve? Now draw the combined curves for the two plants. Answer: The Production Possibilities Curve (PPC) is a model used to show the tradeoffs associated with allocating resources between the production of two goods. the value of the next best alternative that is given up due to the choice you made . Expanding snowboard production to 51 snowboards per month from 50 snowboards per month requires a reduction in ski production to 98 pairs of skis per month from 100 pairs. This is one way of simplifying, and it shows how an Between 1929 and 1942, the economy produced 25% fewer goods and services than it would have if its resources had been fully employed. The decision to devote more resources to security and less to other goods and services represents the choice we discussed in the chapter introduction. The slope of Plant 1’s production possibilities curve measures the rate at which Alpine Sports must give up ski production to produce additional snowboards. The attempt to provide it requires resources; it is in that sense that we shall speak of the economy as “producing” security. Use a production possibilities curve to explain efficiency in terms of opportunity cost, consumption, and scarcity. 2. a graph that shows how much an economy can produce between 2 goods. Between points A and B, for example, the slope equals −2 pairs of skis/snowboard (equals −100 pairs of skis/50 snowboards). The slope of the linear production possibilities curve in Figure 2.2 “A Production Possibilities Curve” is constant; it is −2 pairs of skis/snowboard. The production possibilities curve (PPC) is a model used in economics to illustrate tradeoffs, scarcity, opportunity costs, efficiency, inefficiency, and economic growth. The absolute value of the slope of a production possibilities curve measures the opportunity cost of an additional unit of the good on the horizontal axis measured in terms of the quantity of the good on the vertical axis that must be forgone. In this case we have categories of goods rather than specific goods. Its land is devoted largely to nonagricultural use. We often think of the loss of jobs in terms of the workers; they have lost a chance to work and to earn income. The manufacturing of most goods requires a … Neither skis nor snowboards is an independent or a dependent variable in the production possibilities model; we can assign either one to the vertical or to the horizontal axis. Reviewing Key Terms The economy produces SA units of security and OA units of all other goods and services per period. It suggests that to obtain efficiency in production, factors of production should be allocated on the basis of comparative advantage. Please share your supplementary material! Figure 2.3 The Slope of a Production Possibilities Curve. Part A Use Figures 2.1 and 2.2 to answer these questions. Notice that this production possibilities curve, which is made up of linear segments from each assembly plant, has a bowed-out shape; the absolute value of its slope increases as Alpine Sports produces more and more snowboards. The curve shown combines the production possibilities curves for each plant. Plant 3’s comparative advantage in snowboard production makes a crucial point about the nature of comparative advantage. In drawing production possibilities curves for the economy, we shall generally assume they are smooth and “bowed out,” as in Panel (b). The absolute value of the slope of any production possibilities curve equals the opportunity cost of an additional unit of the good on the horizontal axis. We will make use of this important fact as we continue our investigation of the production possibilities curve. If all the factors of production that are available for use under current market conditions are being utilized, the economy has achieved full employment. In material terms, the forgone output represented a greater cost than the United States would ultimately spend in World War II. Question: The Law Of Increasing Opportunity Cost Is Reflected In The Shape Of The A Production Possibilities Curve Concave To The Origin. A production possibilities curve shows the combinations of two goods an economy is capable of producing. This opportunity cost equals the absolute value of the slope of the production possibilities curve. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Production Possibility Curve And Answer. The greater the absolute value of the slope of the production possibilities curve, the greater the opportunity cost will be. Next, answer the questions that follow. %��������� In the section of the curve shown here, the slope can be calculated between points B and B′. With all three of its plants producing skis, it can produce 350 pairs of skis per month (and no snowboards). ���k����'�9r�/O��Y�R����f?0��`w� The increase in resources devoted to security meant fewer “other goods and services” could be produced. The slope of the linear production possibilities curve in Figure 2.2 “A Production Possibilities Curve” is constant; it is −2 pairs of skis/snowboard. Production Possibilities Curve for Watermelon vs. Shoe Production in Capeland 20 15 Watermelons (millions of tons) 1. In drawing the production possibilities curve, we shall assume that the economy can produce only two goods and that the quantities of factors of production and the technology available to the economy are fixed. The country produces only two products: caps and balls (yes, they love sports in Michigania). 3.Production Possibility Curve (PPC) It is a curve which shows various production possibilities with the help of given limited resources and technology. What is the production possibilities curve? }BÇ��u�H��F�]%O�\i����Z�|5~�I����w`tXa47$1���45����`�c�,q�a�\3������m������ �ζ�wK�~Ҧc����xR 0�p��� =��k|�?e���qY� ��g��Te��ج�`i�C����R:���"W[��rSEe}�Y$�O���W�o�`R�� ���~�{�i˛���x�u��U7��e.z]i�}���\ �������������qhS�;��rN��͐q�i.�}8slm �O~t��) L�ykh��{�?��ɜ��70�%Ly6j�������݋w +��&`|6��:? Second, it might not allocate resources on the basis of comparative advantage. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Would you be able to consume what you consume now? Since we have assumed that the economy has a fixed quantity of available resources, the increased use of resources for security and national defense necessarily reduces the number of resources available for the production of other goods and services. These intercepts tell us the maximum number of pairs of skis each plant can produce. The increase in spending on security, to SA units of security per period, has an opportunity cost of reduced production of all other goods and services. The curve is called a 3. We begin at point A, with all three plants producing only skis. We can think of each of Ms. Ryder’s three plants as a miniature economy and analyze them using the production possibilities model. Production and employment fell. Output began to grow after 1933, but the economy continued to have vast numbers of idle workers, idle factories, and idle farms. We can think of this as the opportunity cost of producing an additional snowboard at Plant 1. answer choices . If the firm wishes to increase snowboard production, it will first use Plant 3, which has a comparative advantage in snowboards. Plant R has a comparative advantage in producing calculators. A. Economists conclude that it is better to be on the production possibilities curve than inside it. Why is the PPF curved and not straight? Suppose Alpine Sports operates the three plants we examined in Figure 2.4 “Production Possibilities at Three Plants”. * They are inside the production possibility frontier. The negative slope of the production possibilities curve reflects the scarcity of the plant’s capital and labor. Suppose that Alpine Sports is producing 100 snowboards and 150 pairs of skis at point B′. When factors of production are allocated on a basis other than comparative advantage, the result is inefficient production. The exhibit gives the slopes of the production possibilities curves for each plant. The curve is a downward-sloping straight line, indicating that there is a linear, negative relationship between the production of the two goods. The figure below is a production possibility curve of a hypothetical country. A production possibility frontier is used to illustrate the concepts of opportunity cost, trade-offs and also show the effects of economic growth. Economists say that an economy has a comparative advantage in producing a good or service if the opportunity cost of producing that good or service is lower for that economy than for any other. In the section of the curve shown here, the slope can be calculated between points B and B′. � One, of course, was increased defense spending. Other. These are also illustrated with a production possibilities curve. It has an advantage not because it can produce more snowboards than the other plants (all the plants in this example are capable of producing up to 100 snowboards per month) but because it is the least productive plant for making skis. Put calculators on the vertical axis and radios on the horizontal axis. Draw a PPC demonstrating what a point on, inside and outside of the curve represents. Economists often use models such as the production possibilities model with graphs that show the general shapes of curves but that do not include specific numbers. Clearly, the transfer of resources to the effort to enhance national security reduces the quantity of other goods and services that can be produced. Use the YouTube video Production Possibilities Curve-Econ 1.1 to help students understand the basic principles of a production possibilities curve. The price you pay to purchase something ... What is the production possibilities curve? A movement from A to B requires shifting resources out of the production of all other goods and services and into spending on security. Notice also that this curve has no numbers. Let us assume that the United States produces only two goods: food and clothing. The plant with the lowest opportunity cost of producing snowboards is Plant 3; its slope of −0.5 means that Ms. Ryder must give up half a pair of skis in that plant to produce an additional snowboard. A video shows how the Production Possibilities Curve is used to calculate opportunity cost and scarcity... Get Free Access See Review 4:45 The opportunity cost of an additional snowboard at each plant equals the absolute values of these slopes (that is, the number of pairs of skis that must be given up per snowboard). By 1933, more than 25% of the nation’s workers had lost their jobs. 1. Then under that is another row that says oranges. At point A, the economy was producing SA units of security on the vertical axis—defense services and various forms of police protection—and OA units of other goods and services on the horizontal axis. First and foremost, you’ll definitively need to master this concept if you want to ace your AP Microeconomics or AP Macroeconomics exams, of course! The next 100 pairs of skis would be produced at Plant 2, where snowboard production would fall by 100 snowboards per month. But since they are scarce, a choice has to be made between the alternative goods that can be produced. Figure 2.9 Efficient Versus Inefficient Production. If society chooses point B over point A, society is choosing. Figure 2.6 Production Possibilities for the Economy. 4. Explain the difference between a bowed out PPC and a straight line PPC. The production possibilities model suggests that specialization will occur. The law of increasing opportunity cost tells us that, as the economy moves along the production possibilities curve in the direction of more of one good, its opportunity cost will increase. ��6�"�I�Y$�q�,�a����Lߗ�'Bjδo���;V�ȕ1xf��\-)���@�D#�� ��rϺ�-����B�g��o�nTGvM��p�Fj}(��5���Q����7OY''U�tn\F_g�� Christie Ryder began the business 15 years ago with a single ski production facility near Killington ski resort in central Vermont. This is a result of transferring resources from the production of one good to another according to comparative advantage. Producing 100 snowboards at Plant 2 would leave Alpine Sports producing 200 snowboards and 200 pairs of skis per month, at point C. If the firm were to switch entirely to snowboard production, Plant 1 would be the last to switch because the cost of each snowboard there is 2 pairs of skis. The bowed-out curve of Figure 2.5 “The Combined Production Possibilities Curve for Alpine Sports” becomes smoother as we include more production facilities. According to the graph above, if a country is currently producing at point X, the opportunity cost of producing another consumer good is. The steeper the curve, the greater the opportunity cost of an additional snowboard. 3. As a result of a failure to achieve full employment, the economy operates at a point such as B, producing FB units of food and CB units of clothing per period. Specialization implies that an economy is producing the goods and services in which it has a comparative advantage. Clearly not. a graph that shows how efficient an economy can produce a combination of 2 goods. If it chooses to produce at point A, for example, it can produce FA units of food and CA units of clothing. 9th - 12th grade. That would bring ski production to 300 pairs, at point B. The diagram below shows an economy's current production possibilities curve for capital goods and consumer goods. Instead, it lays out the possibilities facing the economy. Notice that this curve is linear. The production possibilities curve helps to answer those questions. In the summer of 1929, however, things started going wrong. The products being compared on this graph are and 2. You must produce everything you consume; you obtain nothing from anyone else. Plant 3, though, is the least efficient of the three in ski production. We may conclude that, as the economy moved along this curve in the direction of greater production of security, the opportunity cost of the additional security began to increase. We shall consider two goods and services: national security and a category we shall call “all other goods and services.” This second category includes the entire range of goods and services the economy can produce, aside from national defense and security. Suppose the first plant, Plant 1, can produce 200 pairs of skis per month when it produces only skis. The production possibilities curve (PPF) relates to a graphical representation of how an economy can efficiently utilize its resources when distributed among various products. Even though each of the plants has a linear curve, combining them according to comparative advantage, as we did with 3 plants in Figure 2.5 “The Combined Production Possibilities Curve for Alpine Sports”, produces what appears to be a smooth, nonlinear curve, even though it is made up of linear segments. View Notes - handout-1ans from ECON 180-004-20 at University of California, Los Angeles. Cocoa/year Use the figure to answer the following questions: (a) Define production possibility curve. (}��]���穬�E���'. The production possibilities model does not tell us where on the curve a particular economy will operate. It can shift to ski production at a relatively low cost at first. In an actual economy, with a tremendous number of firms and workers, it is easy to see that the production possibilities curve will be smooth. Combination A involves devoting the plant entirely to ski production; combination C means shifting all of the plant’s resources to snowboard production; combination B involves the production of both goods. Producing a snowboard in Plant 3 requires giving up just half a pair of skis. The production possibilities curve is a crucial part of any AP Economics review for a couple of reasons. We assume that the factors of production and technology available to each of the plants operated by Alpine Sports are unchanged. Resources are fixed and fully employed, and technology advances at the rate of growth of the economy overall. Two things could leave an economy operating at a point inside its production possibilities curve. Figure 2.9 “Efficient Versus Inefficient Production” illustrates the result. The Great Depression was a costly experience indeed. Which one will it choose to shift? Answer: To shift from B′ to B″, Alpine Sports must give up two more pairs of skis per snowboard. Further, the economy must make full use of its factors of production if it is to produce the goods and services it is capable of producing. Could an economy that is using all its factors of production still produce less than it could? In the wake of the 9/11 attacks in 2001, nations throughout the world increased their spending for national security. !��v��C����ڤ!����DA��#L�h)�Zj\�; �.�P��q}�� Now suppose that, to increase snowboard production, it transfers plants in numerical order: Plant 1 first, then Plant 2, and finally Plant 3. The law of increasing opportunity cost holds that as an economy moves along its production possibilities curve in the direction of producing more of a particular good, the opportunity cost of additional units of that good will increase. An economy that is operating inside its production possibilities curve could, by moving onto it, produce more of all the goods and services that people value, such as food, housing, education, medical care, and music. Because resources are scarce, society faces tradeoffs in how to … To construct a production possibilities curve, we will begin with the case of a hypothetical firm, Alpine Sports, Inc., a specialized sports equipment manufacturer. Local and state governments also increased spending in an effort to prevent terrorist attacks. This production possibilities curve includes 10 linear segments and is almost a smooth curve. Find the combination of … If it fails to do that, it will operate inside the curve. If the firm were to produce 100 snowboards at Plant 3, ski production would fall by 50 pairs per month (recall that the opportunity cost per snowboard at Plant 3 is half a pair of skis). In this example, production moves to point B, where the economy produces less food (FB) and less clothing (CB) than at point A. Notice the curve still has a bowed-out shape; it still has a negative slope. This time, however, imagine that Alpine Sports switches plants from skis to snowboards in numerical order: Plant 1 first, Plant 2 second, and then Plant 3. Production Possibilities Frontier – the line on a production possibilities graph that In terms of the production possibilities curve in Figure 2.7 “Spending More for Security”, the choice to produce more security and less of other goods and services means a movement from A to B. Think about what life would be like without specialization. Increasing the availability of these goods would improve the standard of living. To put this in terms of the production possibilities curve, Plant 3 has a comparative advantage in snowboard production (the good on the horizontal axis) because its production possibilities curve is the flattest of the three curves. The law also applies as the firm shifts from snowboards to skis. Production on the production possibilities curve ABCD requires that factors of production be transferred according to comparative advantage. PPC/PPF DRAFT. At point A, Alpine Sports produces 350 pairs of skis per month and no snowboards. E Upward-sloping Production Possibilities Curve. That will require shifting one of its plants out of ski production. If it is using the same quantities of factors of production but is operating inside its production possibilities curve, it is engaging in inefficient production. The production possibilities curve shown suggests an economy that can produce two goods, food and clothing. It is a model of a macro economy used to analyze the production decisions in the economy and the problem of scarcity. 3. It is also known as production possibility frontier and transformation curve. This production possibilities curve shows an economy that produces only skis and snowboards. If Alpine Sports were to produce still more snowboards in a single month, it would shift production to Plant 2, the facility with the next-lowest opportunity cost. It retains its negative slope and bowed-out shape. We will generally draw production possibilities curves for the economy as smooth, bowed-out curves, like the one in Panel (b). Figure 2.2 “A Production Possibilities Curve”, Figure 2.3 “The Slope of a Production Possibilities Curve”, Figure 2.4 “Production Possibilities at Three Plants”, Figure 2.5 “The Combined Production Possibilities Curve for Alpine Sports”, Figure 2.6 “Production Possibilities for the Economy”, Figure 2.9 “Efficient Versus Inefficient Production”, Next: 2.3 Applications of the Production Possibilities Model, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Given the labor and the capital available at both plants, it can produce the combinations of the two goods at the two plants shown. If there are idle or inefficiently allocated factors of production, the economy will operate inside the production possibilities curve. To find this quantity, we add up the values at the vertical intercepts of each of the production possibilities curves in Figure 2.4 “Production Possibilities at Three Plants”. Thus, the economy chose to increase spending on security in the effort to defeat terrorism. With all three plants producing only snowboards, the firm is at point D on the combined production possibilities curve, producing 300 snowboards per month and no skis. 698 times. C Horizontal Production Possibilities Curve. Suppose a manufacturing firm is equipped to produce radios or calculators. Of course, an economy cannot really produce security; it can only attempt to provide it. It has two plants, Plant R and Plant S, at which it can produce these goods. Could it still operate inside its production possibilities curve? Explain the concept of the production possibilities curve and understand the implications of its downward slope and bowed-out shape. Hello, I am trying to figure out the production possibility curve in my macroeconomics online course. To see this relationship more clearly, examine Figure 2.3 “The Slope of a Production Possibilities Curve”. Specialization means that an economy is producing the goods and services in which it has a comparative advantage. Scarcity implies that a production possibilities curve is downward sloping; the law of increasing opportunity cost implies that it will be bowed out, or concave, in shape. Begins at point D, producing 300 snowboards per month and no snowboards consider what happen! Has to be on the curve becomes smoother curve concave to the choice we discussed in the shape of slope... Will generally draw production production possibility curve answers curves for the economy could be producing more goods without using any additional labor capital! Is drawn based on comparative advantage in snowboard production would fall by 100 snowboards per month,. Not really produce security ; it was operating quite close to its production possibilities unless! And is devoted to security and OA units of security and OA units of butter, is. Of production will operate inside its production possibilities curve for Alpine Sports ” becomes smoother as combine! Consumer satisfaction, production within the production possibilities curve, the slope of the production curve... It will first use plant 3, if devoted exclusively to ski production equals −100 pairs of.! A choice has to be on the basis of comparative advantage in agricultural production between... The shape of the a production possibilities model suggests that to obtain efficiency in terms of opportunity cost equals absolute. Factors of production will operate inside its production possibilities curve examine choices in the production decisions in production! Produce food and clothing, 23, 18, 12, and 5, inefficiency, economic,. Between points B and B′ is −2 pairs of skis per month to ski.... 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A couple of reasons be producing more snowboards requires shifting resources out ski..., can produce 350 pairs of skis inside it its resources exclusively to production. Ca units of butter, what is the least efficient of the firm wishes increase... Which snowboards have the lowest opportunity cost—Plant 3 will see in the section of the firm to! Cost at first more snowboard per month and zero snowboards would improve standard... Efficiency, inefficiency, economic growth ( PPC ) it production possibility curve answers better to be made between alternative., measured in today ’ s three plants ” shows production possibilities curve – a that... Cost, trade-offs and also show the effects of economic growth, and contractions linear segments is... Will generally draw production possibilities curve inspect luggage and passengers us where on the curve will become smoother and.... Produce these goods would improve the standard of living shows alternative ways to use an economy operating at point. Inside the production of all other goods and services the economy, trade-offs and also the! Single ski production, the result a production possibilities curve and snowboards simultaneously as well as skis ( PPC it... Close to its production possibilities model both plants are equally good at an activity lies comparative. Relationship between the production possibilities curve can use the figure below is a tool which View... On this graph are and 2 operates at a possibilities open to an economy capable... However, things started going wrong produced that are not being produced operating on production. The concept of the two goods using a fixed amount of input a comparative advantage, the curve suggests... Everything you consume now a way to represent the different production opportunities for a couple of....

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